GRAMMAR
Spelling and pronunciation · Sentences · Nouns · Determiners · Pronouns · Adjectives · Adverbs · Verbs · Prepositions · Conjunctions · Questions · Clauses · Numbers · Word formation · Abbreviations · Punctuation

Numbers

Cardinal numbers

The basic cardinal numbers are:

Numbers up to 999 are written as single words containing up to three components, hyphenated together. Each component represents a digit, and consists of a cardinal number between un and nove, with des or sento appended if the digit represents a multiple of ten or a hundred. Single multiples of ten and a hundred are expressed as just des and sento, with no mention of un. The components for zero multiples (such as the “0” in “209”) are omitted entirely.

Mil and milion are always written as standalone words, separating each group of three digits:

When writing numbers in digits, Elefen uses a space between each group of three digits, as shown above. The decimal point is written as either a period (a dot) or a comma, according to preference, and likewise pronounced as either punto or virgula. Digits following the decimal point are simply listed:

Negative numbers are expressed with min:

Thousands of millions

The word “billion” can mean either a thousand million or a million million, depending on culture. Similar problems affect “trillion”, “quadrillion”, etc. To avoid confusion, Elefen prefers to spell such numbers out explicitly:

The words bilion, trilion, cuadrilion, etc do exist in Elefen, but a speaker who uses them should take care to clarify the meaning.

In scientific writing, the clearest option is to use the international prefixes:

Ordinal numbers

When a number precedes a noun, it is a cardinal number, indicating a quantity:

But when a number follows a noun, it is an ordinal number, indicating a position in a sequence:

Prima is a common alternative to ordinal un, but it can’t be used for higher ordinals that happen to end in “1”:

Numero can be used as a dummy noun to support an ordinal number:

Fractions

One use of the suffix -i is to form words for fractional numbers:

Fractions follow the rules for ordinary nouns:

There are also other way to express fractions:

For scientific writing, international prefixes are available:

Multiples

The suffix -uple forms words for numeric multiples:

Phrases with ves or veses express how many times something happens:

Ves does not express arithmetic multiplication.

Arithmetic

Addition is expressed with plu or e:

Subtraction is expressed with min:

Multiplication is expressed with multiplida par, often simplified to just par:

Division is expressed with divideda entre, often simplified to just entre:

Powers are expressed with a potia and an ordinal number. Cuadrida and cubida are alternatives for “squared” and “cubed”:

Roots are expressed with a radis and an ordinal number:

Measurements

Physical measurements can be expressed in a variety of ways:

A basic principle is that one has height (ave altia) but is high (es alta).

40 metres alta literally means “40 high meters” (i.e. the meters themselves are high), but by natural extension it comes to mean “40 meters in height”.

The same options apply to other measurements, such as:

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Lo ia es automatada jenerada de la paje corespondente en la Vici de Elefen a 19 janero 2022 (17:13 UTC).