GRAMMAR
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Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word that joins two things together. There are two kinds: coordinating and subordinating.

Coordinating conjunctions

A coordinating conjunction joins two components of the same type, producing a larger component of that type. For example, two noun phrases joined by e form a larger noun phrase.

There are four coordinating conjunctions:

Examples:

With lists of more than two items, the conjunction is normally replaced by a comma except between the final pair. A comma is often included before the conjunction too, in such a list:

For emphasis, e, o, and no can be doubled up, with the extra instance placed before the first component. A double o rules out the possibility of both components being valid:

Examples:

E, o, and ma can also join two clauses or sentences:

The adverb donce is also used in this way, as a shorthand for e donce:

Subordinating conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to the containing sentence, indicating its role in that sentence.

There are three types: pronoun subordinators, adverb subordinators, and special subordinators.

Pronoun subordinators

The interrogative pronouns cual and ci can also serve as subordinating conjunctions (relative pronouns) to introduce relative clauses:

They normally relate to a preceding noun. Sometimes, that noun is omitted. In such cases, a pronoun can be added to clarify the meaning:

The use of cual and ci en reported questions is very similar.

Adverb subordinators

The interrogative adverbs – do, cuando, cuanto, como, and perce – can serve as conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses:

They can also be used after a noun, as conjunctions introducing relative clauses:

And they are also used in reported questions (a type of noun clause).

Special subordinators

The special subordinating conjunctions ce and esce introduce noun clauses. Ce introduces a reported statement, and esce introduces a reported question about the truth of a statement.

They can be used after certain nouns, adjectives, and prepositions to complete the meaning:

Ce can also be used to introduce a clause that expresses a result:

The special subordinators afin, car, si, and ca introduce adverbial clauses:

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